Red List of Birds
Two different evaluations were made in the assessment of threatened Baltic Sea birds: bird populations dependent on the HELCOM marine area during their breeding or wintering times were assessed separately.
In the assessment of breeding populations, a total of 58 species or subspecies of birds have been analysed. Out of those, 23 were red-listed.
One species, the gull-billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), has been a regular breeding bird in the past but is considered Regionally Extinct (RE) today. The category Critically Endangered (CR) also comprises one species, the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), which has formerly been a regular breeder in Denmark, Sweden and Germany, but after 2000 has only bred with single pairs in Sweden and Germany (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania).
The category Endangered (EN) comprises four species (the southern dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii, the Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus, the Mediterranean gull Larus melanocephalus and the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla). Eight species or subspecies were classified as Vulnerable (VU) and nine as Near Threatened (NT).
For the wintering populations of the Baltic Sea birds, a total of 47 species, subspecies, or populations were included in the assessment. Out of those, 16 were red-listed.
Two species, the red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) and the black-throated diver (Gavia arctica), have dramatically decreased as wintering birds in the Baltic Sea and were classified as Critically Endangered (CR). The category Endangered (EN) comprises seven species, including five sea duck species. Three taxa classify for the category Vulnerable (VU) and four for the category Near Threatened (NT).
In all 47 wintering species were evaluated, 12 were regarded Not Applicable due to their insignificant proportion of the overall wintering population, and four were left unevaluated due to the lack of data.
Please note: In the Species Information Sheet breeding and wintering populations of Melanitta fusca, Rissa tridactyla, Somateria mollissima, Cepphus grylle andPodiceps auritius have been assessed separately. Cepphus grylle has also been assessed on a sub species level. For these species, the different threat categories and criteria can be seen in the listing below.
Species Information Sheets
|Species name||Threat category||Threat Criteria|
|HELCOM Red List Gelochelidon nilotica||Gelochelidon nilotica||Regionally Extinct (RE)||–|
|HELCOM Red List Gavia arctica (wintering population)||Gavia arctica (wintering population)||Critically Endangered (CR)||A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Gavia stellata (wintering population)||Gavia stellata (wintering population)||Critically Endangered (CR)||A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Charadrius alexandrinus||Charadrius alexandrinus||Critically Endangered (CR)||D1|
|HELCOM Red List Anser fabalis fabalis (wintering population)||Anser fabalis fabalis (wintering population)||Endangered (EN)||A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Calidris alpina schinzii||Calidris alpina schinzii||Endangered (EN)||A2ace, C1|
|HELCOM Red List Clangula hyemalis||Clangula hyemalis (wintering population)||Endangered (EN)||A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Larus melanocephalus||Larus melanocephalus||Endangered (EN)||D1|
|HELCOM Red List Melanitta nigra (wintering population)||Melanitta nigra (wintering population)||Endangered (EN)||A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Podiceps grisegena (wintering population)||Podiceps grisegena (wintering population)||Endangered (EN)||A2b, C1|
|HELCOM Red List Polysticta stelleri (wintering population)||Polysticta stelleri (wintering population)||Endangered (EN)||A1a, B2ab(ii,iv,v), C1,2a|
|HELCOM Red List Xenus cinereus||Xenus cinereus||Endangered (EN)||D1|
|HELCOM Red List Rissa tridactyla||Rissa tridactyla (breeding/wintering)||Endangered (EN)/Vulnerable (VU)||D1/D2|
|HELCOM Red List Melanitta fusca||Melanitta fusca (breeging/wintering)||Vulnerable (VU)/Endangered (EN)||A2b/A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Somateria mollissima||Somateria mollissima (breeding/wintering)||Vulnerable (VU)/Endangered (EN)||A2abe/A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Larus fuscus fuscus||Larus fuscus fuscus||Vulnerable (VU)||A2abce|
|HELCOM Red List Mergus serrator (wintering population)||Mergus serrator (wintering population)||Vulnerable (VU)||A2b|
|HELCOM Red List Philomachus pugnax||Philomachus pugnax||Vulnerable (VU)||A2abcd|
|HELCOM Red List Podiceps auritus||Podiceps auritus (breeding/wintering)||Vulnerable (VU)/Near Threatened (NT)||A2abce/D2|
|HELCOM Red List Arenaria interpres||Arenaria interpres||Vulnerable (VU)||A2abce + 3ce + 4abce|
|HELCOM Red List Aythya marila||Aythya marila||Vulnerable (VU)||A2bcd|
|HELCOM Red List Cepphus grylle||Cepphus grylle grylle/Cepphus grylle arcticus||LC-VU||A2ab/-/A2ab/D2|
|HELCOM Red List Hydroprogne caspia||Hydroprogne caspia||Vulnerable (VU)||C1|
|HELCOM Red List Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula||Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula||Near Threatened (NT)||A2bc|
|HELCOM Red List Hydrocoloeus minutus (wintering population)||Hydrocoloeus minutus (wintering population)||Near Threatened (NT)||D2|
|HELCOM Red List Limosa limosa||Limosa limosa||Near Threatened (NT)||A2ac|
|HELCOM Red List Oenanthe oenanthe||Oenanthe oenanthe||Near Threatened (NT)||A2abc|
|HELCOM Red List Tringa totanus||Tringa totanus||Near Threatened (NT)||A2ac|
|HELCOM Red List Vanellus vanellus||Vanellus vanellus||Near Threatened (NT)||A2bc|
|HELCOM Red List Actitis hypoleucos||Actitis hypoleucos||Near Threatened (NT)||A2ab|
|HELCOM Red List Aythya fuligula||Aythya fuligula||Near Threatened (NT)||A2ab|
|HELCOM Red List Branta bernicla hrota (wintering population)||Branta bernicla hrota (wintering population)||Near Threatened (NT)||B1ab(iii), D2|
|HELCOM Red List Calidris temminckii||Calidris temminckii||Near Threatened (NT)||A2a-c|
|HELCOM Red List Sternula albifrons||Sternula albifrons||Least Concern (LC)||–|
|HELCOM Red List Sterna sandvicensis||Sterna sandvicensis||Least Concern (LC)||–|
|HELCOM Red List Tadorna tadorna||Tadorna tadorna||Least Concern (LC)||–|