The third HELCOM holistic assessment (HOLAS 3) provides a comprehensive overview of the ecosystem health of the Baltic Sea, covering the assessment period of 2016–2021.
The results of HOLAS 3 will be published in stages. In April 2023, four thematic assessments will be released, covering the topics of economic and social analyses; spatial distribution of pressures and impacts; hazardous substances, marine litter, underwater noise and non-indigenous species; and biodiversity (excluding chapter 4). The fifth thematic assessment on eutrophication, as well as the complete biodiversity assessment, were released in June 2023. The summary report, State of the Baltic Sea 2023, was published on 31 October 2023, together with a dedicated State of the Baltic Sea -website.
The HOLAS 3 reports highlight a broad range of aspects, covering the state of the ecosystem, environmental pressures, and human well-being. HOLAS 3 contributes to a vast sharing of knowledge, and to the development of knowledge, both within and across topics. The assessments will also serve to keep track of the implementation and the effectiveness of the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). The reports are a major joint effort of the HELCOM countries, and they are a key pillar of HELCOM work and policy making.
Summary report 2023
Thematic assessments 2023
Full resolution downloads:
- HELCOM Thematic assessment of biodiversity 2016-2021 PART 1 (Preface – Chapter 7)
- HELCOM Thematic assessment of biodiversity 2016-2021 PART 2 (Chapter 8 – References)
- HELCOM Thematic assessment of biodiversity 2016-2021 ANNEXES