Baltic Marine Environment
Protection Commission

Red List of Fish and Lamprey Species

                                                                                                                    Photo: Anders Asp

Among the fish and lamprey species, 14 were evaluated as threatened (Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable), nine as Near Threatened, eight as Data Deficient and two were regarded Regionally Extinct.

The two Regionally Extinct species in the HELCOM area are the American Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) and the common skate (Dipturus batis).

Four species were categorised as Critically Endangered, the Baltic Sea populations of the grayling (Thymallus thymallus), the eel (Anguilla anguilla) and two sharks, the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) and the spurdog (Squalus acanthias), all of which have experienced dramatic population declines in the HELCOM area. Three species were assessed Endangered: the Atlantic wolf-fish (Anarhichas lupus), the whitefish (Coregonus maraena) and the ling (Molva molva), and seven as Vulnerable: sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), the tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus), the thornback ray (Raja clavata), the cod (Gadus morhua), the whiting (Merlangius merlangus), the salmon (Salmo salar) and the trout (Salmo trutta).

For all except one species, the sea lamprey, the threatened categories were assigned on the basis of estimated past population declines or, in some cases, past declines combined with projected future declines. For the sea lamprey the category assignment was based on the small size and continuously declining population. Additionally, nine species were evaluated Near Threatened and eight Data Deficient. 

Fishing, either as targeted commercial or recreational fishing or as bycatch, are mentioned among the most important reasons for becoming threatened for most of the red-listed fish species. For anadromous fish species, the main threats are migration barriers due to construction of rivers.  Eutrophication causing the loss of habitats, both directly due to filamentous algae covering habitats and indirectly due to oxygen deficiency, is a serious threat to several fish species.

Species Information Sheets

NameSpecies nameThreat categoryThreat Criteria
HELCOM Red List Dipturus batisDipturus batisRegionally Extinct (RE)
HELCOM Red List Acipenser oxyrinchusAcipenser oxyrinchusRegionally Extinct (RE)
HELCOM Red List Squalus acanthiasSqualus acanthiasCritically Endangered (CR)A2bd
HELCOM Red List Thymallus thymallusThymallus thymallusCritically Endangered (CR)A2bcd
HELCOM Red List Anguilla anguillaAnguilla anguillaCritically Endangered (CR)A3bde+4bde
HELCOM Red List Lamna nasusLamna nasusCritically Endangered (CR)A2bd
HELCOM Red List Molva molvaMolva molvaEndangered (EN)A2d
HELCOM Red List Anarhichas lupusAnarhichas lupusEndangered (EN)A2d
HELCOM Red List Coregonus maraenaCoregonus maraenaEndangered (EN)A2bd
HELCOM Red List Petromyzon marinusPetromyzon marinusVulnerable (VU)C2a(i)
HELCOM Red List Raja clavataRaja clavataVulnerable (VU)A2bd
HELCOM Red List Salmo salarSalmo salarVulnerable (VU)A4b
HELCOM Red List Salmo truttaSalmo truttaVulnerable (VU)A4b
HELCOM Red List Gadus morhuaGadus morhuaVulnerable (VU)A2b,c + A4b,c
HELCOM Red List Galeorhinus galeusGaleorhinus galeusVulnerable (VU)A2bd, D1
HELCOM Red List Merlangius merlangusMerlangius merlangusVulnerable (VU)A2bd
HELCOM Red List Melanogrammus aeglefinusMelanogrammus aeglefinusNear Threatened (NT)B1a+2a
HELCOM Red List Merluccius merlucciusMerluccius merlucciusNear Threatened (NT)B1a+2a
HELCOM Red List Scophthalmus maximusScophthalmus maximusNear Threatened (NT)A2bd
HELCOM Red List Zoarces viviparusZoarces viviparusNear Threatened (NT)A2b
HELCOM Red List Aspius aspiusAspius aspiusNear Threatened (NT)A3d
HELCOM Red List Cyclopterus lumpusCyclopterus lumpusNear Threatened (NT)A2b
HELCOM Red List Enchelyopus cimbriusEnchelyopus cimbriusNear Threatened (NT)A2b
HELCOM Red List Lampetra fluviatilisLampetra fluviatilisNear Threatened (NT)A2bd
HELCOM Red List Lota lotaLota lotaNear Threatened (NT)A2b
HELCOM Red List Phrynorhombus norvegicusPhrynorhombus norvegicusData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Pomatoschistus norvegicusPomatoschistus norvegicusData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Pomatoschistus pictusPomatoschistus pictusData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Zeugopterus punctatusZeugopterus punctatusData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Lebetus guilletiLebetus guilletiData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Lebetus scorpioidesLebetus scorpioidesData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Lesueurigobius friesiiLesueurigobius friesiiData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Lycodes gracilisLycodes gracilisData Deficient (DD)
HELCOM Red List Symphodus melopsSymphodus melopsLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Syngnathus acusSyngnathus acusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Syngnathus typhleSyngnathus typhleLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Taurulus bubalisTaurulus bubalisLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Trachinus dracoTrachinus dracoLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Triglopsis quadricornisTriglopsis quadricornisLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Alburnus alburnusAlburnus alburnusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Alosa fallaxAlosa fallaxLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Amblyraja radiataAmblyraja radiataLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Ammodytes marinusAmmodytes marinusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Ammodytes tobianusAmmodytes tobianusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Clupea harengusClupea harengusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Cobitis taeniaCobitis taeniaLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Coregonus albulaCoregonus albulaLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Cottus gobioCottus gobioLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Entelurus aequoreusEntelurus aequoreusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Labrus bergyltaLabrus bergyltaLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Labrus mixtusLabrus mixtusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Liparis liparisLiparis liparisLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Liparis montaguiLiparis montaguiLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Lumpenus lampretaeformisLumpenus lampretaeformisLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Myoxocephalus scorpiusMyoxocephalus scorpiusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Nerophis lumbriciformisNerophis lumbriciformisLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Nerophis ophidionNerophis ophidionLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Pelecus cultratusPelecus cultratusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Phoxinus phoxinusPhoxinus phoxinusLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Scyliorhinus caniculaScyliorhinus caniculaLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Spinachia spinachiaSpinachia spinachiaLeast Concern (LC)
HELCOM Red List Somniosus microcephalusSomniosus microcephalusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Squatina squatinaSquatina squatinaNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Thunnus thynnusThunnus thynnusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Zeus faberZeus faberNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Alopias vulpinusAlopias vulpinusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Alosa alosaAlosa alosaNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Ballerus ballerusBallerus ballerusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Barbus barbusBarbus barbusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Cetorhinus maximusCetorhinus maximusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Chimaera monstrosaChimaera monstrosaNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Coryphaenoides rupestrisCoryphaenoides rupestrisNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Cottus poecilopusCottus poecilopusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Galeus melastomusGaleus malestomusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Gobio gobioGobio gobioNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Hippoglossus hippoglossusHippoglossus hippoglossusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Scomber scombrusScomber scombrusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Sebastes norvegicusSebastes norvegicusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Sebastes viviparusSebastes viviparusNot Applicable (NA)
HELCOM Red List Pollachius pollachiusPollachius pollachiusNot Applicable (NA)