The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) is an intergovernmental organization for enhanced ocean sustainability. ICES is a network of more than 4000 scientists from almost 300 institutes, with 1600 scientists participating in activities annually.

The main objective of ICES is to increase the scientific knowledge of the marine environment and its living resources and to use this knowledge to provide advice to competent authorities. ICES Science and Advice considers both how human activities affect marine ecosystems and how ecosystems affect human activities.