Of 17 open-sea sub-basins, good environmental status (GES) for DIP has been achieved only in the Bothnian Bay and Quark.
Of the remaining 15 sub-basins, in the Kattegat, Danish Straits, Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay and Gulf of Riga, winter time turned to decrease since the 1980's or 1990's. In the Arkona Basin, Bornholm Basin and Gulf of Finland, DIP has continued to increase.
The confidence of the presented DIP status estimate is high in all 17 open sub-basins.
Eutrophication is caused by excessive inputs of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) resulting from various human activities. High concentrations of nutrients and their ratios form the preconditions for huge algal blooms, reduced water clarity and increased oxygen consumption. Long term nutrient data are key parameters for quantifying the effects of human activities and evaluating the success of measures undertaken. This core indicator focuses on one important aspect of the complex phenomenon, but does not alone assess the eutrophication status.
BSAP segment and objective
A Baltic Sea unaffected by eutrophication
MSFD descriptor and criteria
5.1. Nutrient levels
Other relevant legislation
Water Framework Directive
Pyhälä M, Fleming-Lehtinen V, Laamanen M, Łysiak-Pastuszak E, Carstens M, Leppänen J-M, Leujak W, Nausch G, 2014. Phosphorus status - HELCOM Core Indicator Report. Online. [Date Viewed], http://www.helcom.fi/baltic-sea-trends/indicators/phosphorus-dip